Learning from Japan Handle Earthquake part1

Earthquake back hit Fukushima prefecture in northern Japan, a magnitude 7.3 on the Richter scale, Monday, November 21, 2016, at 05:59 local time.
Because of the magnitude of shocks, vibrations felt in Tokyo, capital of Japan, which is 239 kilometers. Almost equal to the distance from Jakarta to Brebes, Central Java.
As quoted from the  RT , the Japan Meteorological Agency, the country’s meteorological agency reported, three hours after the earthquake struck, 1.4-meter-high tsunami was reportedly spotted in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture.
In addition, the Port of Soma with a height of 90 centimeters, and in Ishinomaki Ayukawa and Port Kuji which reached 80 centimeters. The tsunami created by not creating a serious impact, since the waves coming from the sea water was not until the flooded area residents.
This incident recalled by the earthquake that hit the region on 11 March 2011. At that time, an earthquake struck the strength of 9.0 on the Richter scale. Creating a 10 meter tsunami wave.
Impact, Japanese National Police Agency confirmed the 15 269 killed, 5,363 wounded, and 8,526 missing in six prefectures, earthquake emergency kit
Tsunami 1.4 Meter Visible After Japan Earthquake
The most terrible is the destruction of the cooling system at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, thus creating radiation that contaminates the sea, land, and air. The government also issued a state of emergency, and hundreds of thousands of residents had to be evacuated.
Anticipating the event, power plants and nuclear reactors that are directly off the coast, to minimize the spread of radiation into the air and water.
Tokyo Electric Power as the company that operates the nuclear plant said there has been no significant damage at the power plant caused by the earthquake. However, for the time being, the affected area has not been able to use electric energy.
The company also announced the condition of the reactor at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in a safe condition. Reactor cooling system which had been halted because of the earthquake, could certainly operate.
The fate of the Indonesian citizens
Deputy Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia in Tokyo, Japan, Ricky Suhendar, ensuring 3,700 Indonesian citizens living in the four affected areas, is safe.
“There are four areas hit by the earthquake and tsunami. That Miyagi Prefecture, Fukushima Prefecture, Aomori Prefecture, and Chiba Prefecture. All the citizens who live there certainly safely and no one was hurt,” said Ricky, when talking with  Reuters on Tuesday, 22 November 2016.
Despite all the citizen survived Embassy in Tokyo remained wary of aftershocks. Therefore, Japan was known to often hit by earthquakes. The country has a seismically active area because of the subduction zone or earth plate collision.
According to the Head of the Earthquake and Tsunami Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics, Mochammad Riyadi, with strong shocks, it is estimated the impact of the earthquake can cause damage to building a moderate level.
“The earthquake-Koriyama Fukushima is happening now is a kind of shallow earthquakes in subduction zones. In this case, the Pacific Plate subduction zone slipped under the Okhotsk Plate,” Riyadi said through a press release received  VIVA.co.id Tuesday, 22 November 2016.
Riyadi explained, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center based in Hawaii reported that the earthquake has triggered a local tsunami around the epicenter.
“Based on the analysis and  modeling  of tsunami conducted by the BMKG, indicating that the tsunami would not affect in the region of Indonesia,” said Riyadi.
To that end, BMKG warned residents living on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, to remain calm and ignore the issue.
Similar in Indonesia
The frequency of earthquakes in ‘country of Sakura’ is actually also a challenge in Indonesia. Equally as an archipelagic country, Indonesia also has many subduction zones, so that the potential occurrence of earthquakes is also often hit.
The difference is, when the big earthquake in Japan, the number of casualties can be minimized. Meanwhile, for Indonesia, the death toll is often comparable to the strength of the earthquake. If a large number of people confirmed much.
If you look at the historical record, since an earthquake rocked Aceh with power from 9.1 to 9.3 on the Richter scale on December 26, 2004, every year there are a large magnitude earthquake in Indonesia.
After Aceh, March 28, 2005, an earthquake occurred in Nias measuring 8.7 on the Richter scale.
Then, on May 27, 2006, rocked Yogyakarta turn shallow earthquakes measuring 5.9 on the Richter scale.
Then, on 12 September 2007, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale hit the west coast of Padang and Bengkulu. This event is also known as the Nias earthquake.
The earthquake then occurred on November 16, 2008 in the north coast of Sulawesi, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale. Then, the 7.3-magnitude earthquake in Tasikmalaya on 2 September, 2009.
In 2010, precisely October 25, a magnitude 7.7 on the Richter scale occurred in the Mentawai Islands. Then, in subsequent years earthquakes continue to occur with increasing frequency.
According to experts, geophysics and volcano, Surono, Indonesia since the first is a subscription earthquake. It is also evident from the culture and architectural style of the local community, which generally use the stage house.
“It was a house that is resistant to earthquakes, because the pillars into a single unit,” said Surono when contacted  VIVA.co.id,  Tuesday, November 22, 2016.
So, if you want to learn about disaster mitigation, said Surono, Indonesia stayed learn from history and ancestral culture. No need to look far to Japan, because there is no other country that has experience of dealing with the disaster.
“I am more daring study with Indonesia. Indonesia disaster mitigation since the ancestors already there,” he said.
The problem is, the ancestors never write about the experience of their history to natural disasters. They were handed down through the arts, good songs, fairy tales, folklore and more.
Surono reveals the weakness of disaster mitigation programs in Indonesia, bringing the total number of victims is difficult minimized. Meanwhile, Japan, is very successful. “The Japanese people want to be trained, the key there,” he said.
When I was the head of the Geological Agency, Surono never made a Hazard Mitigation Program Without Ties and bread. The program is organized around 2007 to communities around Mount Merapi, as a precaution due to the potential of the mountain will erupt.
Surono meaning without a tie is present in front of the public to leave the formalities as a state official. Meanwhile, without bread, they supplied food usually eaten residents.
This situation was created to create a comfortable atmosphere and eliminate formal barriers, which she values ​​would hamper counseling.
“Eat what’s in there, is not bread, and I do not need to wear a tie. There are more effective because they know I am not a lecture. I’m trying to straighten out of the question, sit not wear seat, sitting on the floor, eating what it is, it is taxable , “he said.
As natural disasters, earthquakes can not be predicted arrival. Humans also do not have the technology to prevent it from happening, so the best chance of disaster risk reduction is to the success of the mitigation program.
“The problem can not be earthquake engineering  ( design), I have to  engineer  is its people,” said Surono.
There, he saw a difference between the people of Indonesia and Japan. That attitude has resulted in a significant difference for extended survival time of a natural disaster.
Surono said, advances in technology have no meaning, if people do not have an awareness of disaster mitigation. He pointed out, one of the successes of disaster mitigation programs in Indonesia, is when Merapi erupted.
Due to the alertness of apparatus plus mitigation programs that run widely, from about one million people living at the foot of the mountain, the death toll at around 350 people.
At that time, people are willing to be evacuated because they understand the dangers of disasters.
On the other hand, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X as governor of Yogyakarta, also fully supports the government’s move. This combination creates a good climate for disaster mitigation.
“Death is God disposes, but do not give up. That ultimately is the destiny of the disaster, but we as human beings have reason and mind, so that we can be engineered, peace with nature,” said Surono.

Preparation of an earthquake, before the earthquake

Earthquake preparedness kit – Given the position of the Earth Indonesia are located in areas prone to earthquakes , it helps meet earthquake resistant housing standards if you want to build a house. In those countries such as Japan and the United States have been tested for earthquake resistant buildings underneath by a slab of rubber (or in a method that is widely used in post-earthquake Yogyakarta: sand ) can minimize the risk.

Currently home try to continue to monitor the process. In order to get a sense of security of the buildings that you wake up and you will occupy. As and earthquake-resistant building materials can be read in the article is, or can also use other sources.

Gambar terkait

If you have a terraced house, place heavy objects on the bottom floor. This is in anticipation of the house that has not been built with earthquake-resistant construction so that in case of earthquakes heavy objects that do not harm the people who were on the bottom floor.

Following the program of insurance . Choose a credible insurance company.
In addition, preparation for earthquakes is to provide information on the earthquake (volcanic, tectonic) to the whole family. Provide clear information to all members of the family about the structure of the earth, an earthquake and ways need to be done before the earthquake, as well as ways to save themselves from earthquakes.

One method of providing information on the family is by turning filmn about earthquakes or read books related to the earthquake. Special socialization in children is necessary to note the development of psychologists.

Discussing earthquakes ahead of time can help reduce fear.
Following training evakuai held. Idonesia Governments are now starting to realize how the geographical position of Indonesia is very vulnerable, because of the government’s central or regional members serious attention to disaster management or disaster management, including conducting trainings to anticipate disasters and evacuations.

Saving securities in places that are safe and easy to reach. Do not put the securities at a place easily damaged, exposed to water or difficult to reach.

Setting up equipment P3K , toilet fixtures, flashlights, radios, food supplements and drinking water in a place that is easy to carry (bag, backpack). Keep these supplies are always available and place the bag / backpack in an accessible place. Remember, earthquakes can never be predicted, could Dating afternoon / evening. Special lighting torch (flashlight) should be held for more than one and placed in an accessible place such as, in the bedroom, living room, family room, kitchen.

Put your cell phone in an accessible place. When an earthquake occurred the mobile phone is an effective means to communicate.

Prepare also slippers / shoes that are easy to wear, because when an earthquake caused the roof to collapse, cabinets falling scattered, scattered glass, it requires prudence. Do not let the bare feet that does not make it difficult to move.

Store flammable materials in places that are not easily broken, to avoid the fire.
Always turn off water, gas, electricity when it is used. Make it a habit to turn off the electricity and gas stoves that are not needed at night before bed. When an earthquake happens, and you are cooking in the kitchen, max first turn off the stove, then tried to escape.

Regularly check the stability of objects hanging and easy to fall when gemnpa earth, like the chandelier, paintings, wall hangings, etc. closet. It’s good that menemel cupboard in the wall on a nail in the wall so that when an earthquake is not easy to collapse.

Park the vehicle with the position ready for use (the front of the vehicle facing outward)
Fill the fuel before it is parked. Remember, usually when an earthquake happens in the fuel can be difficult, if applicable, the price could go up 300-500%. So it’s good prepared before the earthquake to prepare for an earthquake .

Understanding Earthquakes and Type – the type of Earthquake

Whatcausesearthquakes.com – Earthquakes are one form of natural disaster that can endanger human survival on earth. Earthquakes can cause damage to the infrastructure and also claimed the lives of both humans and other living organisms.

Earthquakes can occur due to several things, such as volcanoes, tectonic plates shift, landslide, or for the use of a wide range of objects that can cause an explosion.

The larger the scale or size of the causes of earthquakes, the greater the earthquake shaking may cause. And the greater the shocks that occur, the greater the degree of infrastructure damage that may be caused.

Hasil gambar untuk jenis-jenis gempa yang ada

Definition and Understanding Earthquakes

The term earthquake is basically derived from two words meaning words seismic shocks or vibration, and the word is the name of the planet Earth that we inhabit. If the means of forming the phrase he said, the earthquake is unnatural shocks that occur on earth for a wide range of specific issues.

If interpreted in full, then the understanding of earthquake is shaking or vibrations that occur as a result of the shift or movement of the earth’s layers of rock at the base or at the bottom of the earth’s surface.

Type – type Earthquake

When viewed from the cause, earthquakes can be classified into four types of earthquakes, namely:

  1. Earthquake Volcanic (Volcano)

Volcanic earthquakes are earthquake that occurred as a result of the eruption of the volcano. Volcanic earthquakes usually occur shortly before the volcanic larva out of the bowels of the earth. Type volcanic earthquakes is one of the earthquake can be predicted.

  1. Earthquake Tectonics

Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes that occur as a result of the shift of tectonic plates arrived – arrived. Tectonic earthquakes are the most devastating earthquakes and unpredictable arrival / time of the occurrence.

  1. Earthquake Ruins

Earthquake ruins the earthquake that occurred as a result of landslides / collapse of the limestone area around the mining area. Just like a tectonic earthquake, earthquake debris usually unpredictable time of occurrence. However, the level of shocks arising from earthquakes tend to be much smaller than the two previous earthquakes.

  1. Artificial Earthquake

Artificial earthquake is an earthquake that occurs because of human activity either intentional or unintentional. Artificial earthquakes can occur due to the use of dynamite, bombs or other explosive devices of various kinds. Not only that, the artificial earthquakes can also occur unintentionally ie when the explosion happened because of an accident.

Well, that little has been written about the understanding of earthquakes that we can share with you. May be useful!

Given the Indonesian Indigenous Building Earthquake Resistant

As tectonic activity could not be separated from Indonesia. Having traversed the path area fire ring is a cluster of volcanoes in the Pacific region, which means the path that passes this becomes prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Did GNFI comrade behind this seismic threat, Indonesia has the technological heritage that is valuable?

This is earthquake-resistant houses, the building was already there in Indonesia since time immemorial. The earthquake-resistant homes can be found in the construction of buildings that are generally customary form of houses on stilts that can withstand an earthquake.

The building itself can be grouped into two categories, namely building tradisioal include customs hall, places of worship, and a vernacular house. Vernacular house is typical and unique building that is derived from an ancient tradition, has the ability to withstand the physical environment such as climate, earthquakes and wind.

Caption (© Own Photo)

Related articles: earthquake survival kit

According to the Head of the Earthquake Research Center, Faculty of Engineering UKI Pinondang Simanjuntak, custom home on a draft structure should be symmetrical and have a level of sufficient rigidity so that the joints are not loose, as reported in.

 The use of lightweight materials such as wood and bamboo enables custom building not easily collapse because it has kelenteran against earthquakes. Additionally structures linked to one another using the pegs can be more dynamic and robust so resistant to earthquake shocks.

Each region in Indonesia has one or more types of vernacular house built on a tradition of certain regions that show the diversity and local wisdom. Even local knowledge was also adopted by countries such as Japan that almost every house there using lightweight base material.

In Indonesia alone there are some forms of traditional indigenous building reliable to withstand earthquake shaking, he them

house Tower

It must have been many who know traditional building from the Minangkabau, West Sumatra. The best known, houses the Tower has a roof construction made from fibers that curve inward. In 2009 during the earthquake, the house Tower is much that remains strong survive at the time.

Old house North Bali

The houses are located in North Bali is considered to be resistant to earthquakes, because it has a construction which utilizes pillars or wooden poles and coat of arms as well as a beam sineb. It aims to protect its inhabitants from the rubble caused by the earthquake.

Local architecture since ancient Balinese civilization already tested that long to build earthquake-resistant houses that will be transmitted to the next generation. Traditional building in North Bali is menkadi one of the key findings in a historical earthquake in Indonesia.

Custom building of Tomohon, North Sulawesi was long known as the home resistant to earthquake shocks. His name is becoming known to foreign countries, even houses made of wood and iron cempaka have been imported by the state of Argentina and Venezuela know.Home Woloan

Home Omo Hada

The greatness of Nias traditional building construction is seen in 2010 ago, when the quake-stricken Nias fairly large scale. This traditional building still stands and his position only slightly shifted.

Construction of houses Omo Hada using wooden pegs to unify turf, did not have a window but was replaced by a sort of trellis models for ventilation and has a roof that is oval.

Uniquely this traditional building has pillars irregular direction. There are upward, sideways or downward. It is said that that’s what makes this building earthquake resistant. Omo Hada custom homes are often found in the village and the village Bawomataulo Tumori.

home Laheik

Almost the same with home Omo Hada, traditional building from the Kerinci, Riau is also composed of mutually wood put together using wooden pegs and ties made from fibers mine. Laheik house usually occupied by several families.

Diversity traditional building reflects the local wisdom in the archipelago of Indonesia is an ancestral cultural heritage that we must continue to keep and preserve. Proud of Indonesia.

22 217 Climber Killed and Missing from the summit of Mount Everest

At least 22 climbers were killed and 217 others were missing near the base camp of Mount Everest where hundreds of climbers, including many foreigners, stranded after an avalanche swept Nepal huge earthquake triggered the world’s highest peak.

More than 60 climbers were injured and many foreign adventurers, climbers and guides at the base camp were reported missing when an avalanche swept down Everest and buried under snow yesterday, India Times reported today.

22 217 Climber Killed and Missing from the summit of Mount Everest

Read more: earthquake disaster kit

While 17 people were killed at the base camp , five other deaths – were reported on Sunday – is the area below the base camp , the interior ministry official said.

Thirty-two people were rescued from the region to date. They were rescued by five helicopters, said Suresh Acharya, joint secretary in the ministry of tourism.

About 22 people severely injured climbers on Sunday transported by helicopter, including from the Indian air force, to the village of Pheriche, the nearest medical facility, despite the bad weather hamper rescue and relief operations. Some of the injured have also been transported by plane to the capital.

Romanian climber Alex Gavan, who were in the base camp , mem- posting to his Twitter account: “All helicopter evacuated badly injured. Caring for those in need. Do you want to sleep.”

There are more than a hundred climbers in the camps I and II of Mount Everest, on top of the base camp , and all were reported safe, Nepal Mountain Association official said on Sunday.

Team Mountain Indian soldiers were hiking in Everest also safe at base camp (17,500 feet) and on Saturday had helped evacuate 13 bodies, said an Indian army spokesman.

54 year old Indian man who tried to climb all the highest peaks on seven continents, stuck in camp II Everest along with eleven other climbers.

One Chinese climber is one among the dead, while the technology company Google on Sunday reported the death of one Google executive California, Dan FREDINBURG, the Everest disaster.

Madison Mountaineering bermaskas in the US who said doctors base camp of his, Marisa Eve Girawong, was killed in an avalanche on Everest.

Nepal tourism ministry officials estimate that at least 1,000 climbers, including about 400 foreigners, were in the base camp when the worst earthquake in 80 years on Saturday afternoon triggered avalanche on Everest. The quake also shook the neighboring India and China, as India Times reported.

What to do during an earthquake

The Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) nearly every day to announce an earthquake in various parts of Indonesia. Disaster expert staff of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Surono, said the potential for an earthquake in Indonesia reaches 30 percent of earthquakes occur worldwide.

Surono added that this earthquake statistics by category earthquake that caused the death of 1,000 more. According to the website of BMKG, Indonesia is prone to earthquakes because the path traversed by the confluence of three tectonic plates, namely: Indo-Australian Plate, the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate.

Illustration shelter under a strong table during an earthquake.

Earthquake insurance – Indo-Australia plate moves relative to the north and infiltrate into the Eurasian plate, while the Pacific plate moves relative to the west. Strip plates meeting at sea so that in the event of a major earthquake with a shallow depth of it will potentially cause a tsunami that Indonesia is prone to tsunamis.

Therefore, the earthquake could occur at any time and are difficult to predict. What if an earthquake suddenly come? Do not panic and try to apply the following important things.

recommendation

1. Lower the position of the body

The basic method is also used to deal with this fire is the first thing you can do when an earthquake occurs. Kneeling and lying down is highly recommended to help balance yourself against vibration.

2. Find a shelter

When you are indoors, take cover under a sturdy table or chair. When there are no objects that could be used to protect yourself, cover your face, head, and neck with both arms, then curl up in a corner. Avoid switching room.

If you are in bed, stay there and cover your head using a pillow. Your security will be more secure if you do not get out of bed. However, if you are under the chandelier that is likely to fall, immediately move to a safer place.

3. Holding onto solid objects

When the ground shook and all the objects falling, hold on to solid objects around you. Do this until the earthquake completely stopped.

Ban

1. Get out of the room. Risk injury will be much greater when you are trying to get out of the room.

2. Approaching / towards the door – with the intention of sheltering behind it.

3. Moving around the room – with the intention of seeking refuge.

Affirm BMKG Earthquake Predicted Difficult

The news of the departure of worms from the ground in a weak condition, disturbing the public Bantul, Yogyakarta. Moreover, the emergence of the worm was linked to the issue of the coming earthquake.

Kasi Observation Geophysics Station Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) Yogyakarta Bambang Subagyo said there was no link between the release of worms from the ground by the occurrence of earthquakes. Earthquake insurance california

Affirm BMKG Earthquake Predicted Difficult“Actually there is no direct connection (between the worm with the earthquake). The earthquake was hard to predict,” said Bambang Subagyo.

He explained that the animals move out, due to the influence of weather. “Possibly because of the heat. A few days earlier, about 27 to May 31 some point in Bantul not rain, such as in Pleret, Bantul, and Imogiri. Only then 1st (June) rains,” he said.

He added, the earthquake is different from the others. If the mountain will experience eruption, around the mountain there will be changes in the air temperature and the animals are usually going down.

“But if the quake, has not been proven the initial symptoms of worms out of the ground. Unlike when the Merapi eruption, for example, there are animals around it down, because the temperature change,” he said.

He also requested, so that the news about the worm phenomenon addressed wisely.

“No need to be excessive, then linked. Earthquakes can not be predicted, when and mananya. Even if later an earthquake, it is worth the time,” he said.

According to him, the earthquake is still threatening the Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY). Because, in the Indian Ocean between Australia there is a slab with Java.

Reported earlier, a message appears in Yogyakarta chain circulating through various social media related catastrophe will occur in the near future. The message contains a natural phenomenon related to the release of earthworms in a weak condition.

Impact of Volcanic Eruption For Humans

Volcanoes or also called the Mountain of Fire is a term that refers to condition where there is a fluid channel through which the hot material either in liquid or lava. The fluid channels appear on the surface of the earth is only just covered by soil were pursed and we know the name of the mountain. Basically, a volcano located almost in all corners of the world regions.

It’s just that there are some countries that are known to be rich volcanic mountains because the area traversed by Sirkum and Mediterranean Mountains. One such country is Indonesia. Every year there are only volcano in our country that reported an increase in activity. However, people have always known and looked like volcanic eruptions as one inseparable part of their lives. The only way to survive is to adapt.

Facts of what causes earthquakes – Further, volcanic eruptions should be recognized not only bring negative impact only for the life of the surrounding community. There is also the positive impact that makes people chose to remain in the settlements around the volcano. Any negative impacts and positive impacts of volcanic eruptions, the following descriptions.

Negative Impactvolcano erupts it will bring material that is harmful to the organism in its path, therefore vigilance is absolutely necessary. Here are the negative things that can happen when the mountain erupted:

  1. The pollution of the air by the volcano ash containing various gases from sulfur dioxide or SO2, hydrogen sulfide or H2S gas, No2 or Nitrogen Dioxide as well as some potentially toxic dust partike living things around.
  2. With the eruption of a volcano can be sure all of the activities of residents in the surrounding area will lumph including economic activity.
  3. All the points are traversed by hazardous materials such as lava and hot volcanic ash would damage the residential area.
  4. Hot lava will also make the forest around the mountain on fire damaged and this means that natural ecosystems are threatened forests.
  5. Material ejected by the volcano has the potential to cause a number of illnesses for example respiratory infection.
  6. The village is a point would travel to stagnate in the presence of a volcanic eruption. Call it Rnjani Mountains and Mount Merapi, the mountain is in a normal condition is one of the best tourist destinations for those travelers nature lovers.

Positive Impact of Volcanic Eruption

In addition to the negative impact, if examined, volcanic eruptions also actually bring a blessing though only for people that are around. Anything? Here’s the description:

  1. Lands affected by the volcano bulkanis result is very good for agriculture because the soil becomes more fertile in Ash Grove and could produce much higher quality crops. Of course, for residents of the surrounding mountains are the majority of farmers, it is very profitable.
  2. There is a new livelihood for the people around the volcano has erupted, what is it? The answer sand miners. Volcanic material in the form of sand would have economic value.
  3. In addition, there are also rocks ejected by the volcano when meltus. The rocks can be used as building of residents around the mountain.
  4. Although the damaged forest ecosystems, but in some time, will grow more trees forming a new forest ecosystems is also new.
  5. After a volcanic eruption, usually there are geysers or hot springs in the earth that came out with periodic or periodically. Geyser is reportedly good for skin health.
  6. Appears springs named makdani the type of springs with mineral content is very abundant.
  7. In volcanic regions, potential orographic rain. This rain potentially occur because the mountain is best rain.
  8. In the common areas of volcanic eruptions, very well set up a power plant.

This 10 Earthquake in the World

What causes earthquakes facts – An earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale in Nepal claimed more than 1,000 lives. Earlier, an earthquake 9.0 on the Richter scale rocked Japan. But, the second quake was not the two largest earthquake ever.

Trace to 1900, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS), four earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale have occurred in some parts of the world. Here are 10 of the biggest earthquake as quoted from Live Science 28th edition of April 2015.

This 10 Earthquake in the World
10. Assam, Tibet, 1950 (8.6 Richter scale)
At least 1,500 people died because of the earthquake that occurred in East Tiber and Assam, India. Once an earthquake occurs, the ground, which cracked and a major landslide occurred in the two areas. Vibrations also to Sichuan and Yunna, China.

Because of the epicenter is in Tibet, the earthquake was later called Assam-Tibet earthquake or earthquake Assam. The earthquake occurred as a result of the Indian continental plate collision that goes into the Eurasian continental plate.

9. North Sumatra, Indonesia, in 2005 (8.6 magnitude)
More than 1,000 people were killed and hundreds were injured, mostly in Nias, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The quake struck just a few months after the earthquake that destroyed the region’s larger (earthquake list number 3).

The epicenter was happening below the surface of the Indian Ocean, where the Indo-Australian plate pushing the Eurasian plate in the Sunda Strait. The occurrence of this earthquake similar to the 2004 Aceh earthquake

8. Rat Island, Alaska, in 1965 (8.7 magnitude)
Alaska being the only country that triggered a 10 meter tsunami after the earthquake that occurred in the previous seven years. Earthquake alone caused only minor damage at the end of the Aleutian Islands. While the tsunami caused by the earthquake is even spread to Hawaii and Japan.

This earthquake occurred as a result of the Pacific plate pushes under the North American continental plate at a large gathering of Alaska-Aleutian plate. Impact, asphalt roads in Alaska fractured. The runway at the US Coast Guard Loran Station also heavily damaged.

7. Off the coast of Ecuador, in 1906 (8.8 Richter scale)
earthquake measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale off the coast of Ecuador and Colombia triggered a tsunami that killed 1,500 people. The tsunami was spread along the coast of Central America and San Francisco, as well as Japan.

The earthquake occurred along the boundary between the Nazca plate and the South American plate. Many ships sailing when it turned back after seeing the sea have ups abruptly.

6. Offshore Maule, Chile 2010 (8.8 magnitude)
Five years ago at least 500 people died and 800 thousand people displaced by the earthquake and tsunami. More than 1.8 million people were affected. Total economic losses were estimated at US $ 30 billion, or equivalent to Rp 389 trillion. The epicenter occurred along the boundary between the Nazca and South American plates.

5. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, 1952 (9.0 Richter scale)
earthquake is an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale was recorded first. Struck off the east coast of Kamchatka, the earthquake triggered a tsunami as high as 13 meters. Not only in Russia, the tsunami hit Crescent City, California, United States.

There was no casualties from this earthquake, but some areas of Hawaii suffered losses of property damage was estimated at US $ 1 million. The tsunami waves also threw the ship sailing on the high seas to the edge of the beach, destroying piers, and entered the city streets.

4. East Coast of Honshu, Japan, in 2011 (9.0 magnitude)
On March 11, 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale triggered a tsunami that killed 29 thousand people and destroying some of Japan’s nuclear reactors. This earthquake is the largest earthquake ever in the country of the Rising Sun. Sebanyk 50 aftershocks measuring 6.0 on the Richter scale struck Honshu.

This large earth tremors caused by the impulse plate near the trough of Japan, right on the boundary between the Pacific tectonic plate and the North America. Pacific plate pushed down into the North American plate.

3. Remove the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, in 2004 (9.1 magnitude)
earthquake is the largest earthquake in the world and the third largest since the earthquake in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1964. This earthquake triggered a tsunami 13 meters high that destroyed most great Aceh Province and some other areas on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.

The total death toll is estimated at 227 thousand people and left 1.7 million people displaced. A total of 14 countries in Southeast Asia and East Africa also received submissions quake caused tsunami Aceh. The epicenter is due to release a boost pressure between mainland India and Burma plates.

2. Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1964 (9.2 magnitude)
shocks triggered earth nearly 20 meter high tsunami and claimed 128 lives, and caused a loss of US $ 311 million. Earthquake damage occurred in many cities, including Anchorage, about 120 kilometers northwest of the epicenter.

The earthquake rupture along the seismically active fault between the North American and Pacific plates. Getara lasted for three minutes.

1. Chile, 1960 (9.5 Richter scale)
Around 1,655 people were killed by the biggest quake ever recorded in history. Thousands more were injured and millions of people lost the high ground. Southern Chile also suffered material losses of US $ 550 million. The earthquake caused by snapping the Nazca plate under South American plate this triggered a tsunami that killed 61 people in Hawaii, 138 in Japan and 32 people in the Philippines.

Factors Causing Earthquake

Where do earthquakes occur in the us – In a historical record of earthquakes in the 20th century until the 21th century is now often happens that a large magnitude earthquakes and even less likely that caused the tsunami. As well as recently happened, namely the earthquake in Japan March 11, 2011 scale 9.0 on the Richter scale that were previously revised from the 8.9 SR. The earthquake in Japan has also caused a wave of tsunami japan 2011 . Date October 26, 2010 earthquake in Mentawai scale of 7.2 SR also cause Tsunami Mentawai .

Besides earthquakes that does not lose the enormity of the case in Aceh on 26 December 2004. A powerful earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale rocked Aceh and North Sumatra as well cause a tsunami in the Indian Ocean. This natural disaster has claimed over 220,000 lives ( List Earthquake / Tsunami in Ages 20-21 ). Of the many earthquakes that occurred in the Century 20-21, on this occasion will little about the understanding of earthquakes , types of earthquakes as well as the factors that cause earthquakes, as reported.

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Understanding Earthquakes
Earthquakes are vibrations or shocks that occur in the Earth’s surface. Earthquakes are caused by movements in the earth’s crust (tectonic plates). The word earthquake is also used to indicate the origin of the earthquake occurrence. Our Earth is solid though, always moving, and earthquakes occur when pressure happens because the movement was already too big to be detained

Types of Earthquake
1. Earthquakes volcanic (Volcano);
This earthquake occurred as a result of magma activity, which usually happens before the volcano erupted. If the higher activeness it will cause an explosion that would also lead to the occurrence of earthquakes. The earthquake was only felt around the volcano.

2. Tectonic earthquakes;
The earthquake was caused by the tectonic activity, ie shifting tectonic plates suddenly has the power from very small to very large. This earthquake caused more damage or natural disasters on earth, a powerful earthquake vibrations capable of spreading to all parts of the earth.

Tectonic earthquakes are caused by perlepasan [power] that occur due to shifting tectonic plates plate like a rubber band is stretched and released suddenly. Power generated by the pressure between the rocks known as tectonic disability. The theory of plate tectonic (plate tectonics) explains that the earth is composed of several layers of rock, most of the area of the crust it will drift and float in layers like snow. These layers stir slowly so broken to pieces and collide with each other. This has led to a tectonic earthquake.

Map of the distribution follows the pattern and special rules and narrow, which follows the pattern of meeting tectonic plates that make up the earth’s crust. In the earth sciences (geology), the theoretical framework of plate tectonics is a postulate to explain the phenomenon of tectonic earthquake that hit virtually the entire area, which is adjacent to the boundary of tectonic plates meeting. Examples of volcanic earthquakes is as happened in Yogyakarta, Indonesia on Saturday, May 27, 2006 early morning, at 5:54 pm.
1. Earthquake collision ; The earthquake was caused by a meteor or asteroid that fell to Earth, types of earthquakes are rare
2. earthquake debris ; Earthquakes usually occur in the limestone area or in mining regions, this earthquake is rare and localized.
3. Earthquakes artificial ; Artificial earthquake was an earthquake caused by the activities of humans, such as the detonation of dynamite, nuclear or hammers that struck the earth’s surface.

The cause of occurrence of earthquakes
Most earthquakes resulting from the release of energy produced by pressure exerted by the plates are moving. The longer the pressure that the growing and eventually reach the situation where the pressure can not be detained again by the outskirts of the slab. That’s when an earthquake will occur.

Earthquakes usually happen at the aforementioned borders of those continental shelf. The most severe earthquakes typically occur at plate boundaries compressional and translational. The earthquake focus in would likely occur because of material sandwiched into the lithospheric layer undergoes a phase transition at a depth of more than 600 km.

Several other earthquakes can also occur due to movement of magma inside the volcano. Earthquakes like it could be a symptom of impending volcanic eruption. Several earthquakes (rare but) also occur due to accumulated huge mass of water behind the dam, such as the Caribbean Dam in Zambia, Africa.

Some (infrequently) can also occur due to injection or akstraksi liquid from / into the earth (eg. At some thermal power plants of the earth and in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Recently, earthquakes can also occur from blasting explosives. It can make scientists monitoring the secret tests of nuclear weapons by the government. the earthquake that caused by humans as it is also called induced seismicity.